Pursuant to the Constitution, the Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government. The state proclaims itself as a democratic, secular, legal and social state whose highest values are a person, his life, rights, and freedoms.
Kazakhstan gained an independence on December 16, 1991. The capital of Kazakhstan is the city of Nur-Sultan. The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be the Kazakh language. Russian language shall be officially used on equal grounds along with the Kazakh language in state institutions and local self-administrative bodies.
The administrative and territorial structure of the Republic includes 14 regions and 3 cities of republican significance.
The population of Kazakhstan has exceeds 18 mln. people. Occupying the territory of 2 mln. 724.9 thousand square kilometers, country is the ninth largest in the world.
The Republic has common borders with Russia in the North and West – 7,591 km (the longest continuous land border in the world), in the east with China – 1,783 km, in the south with Kyrgyzstan – 1,242 km, Uzbekistan – 2,351 km and Turkmenistan – 426 km. The total length of land borders is 13,200 km.
Currently, representatives of 130 ethnic groups live in Kazakhstan; a particular institute for the harmonization of inter-ethnic relations – the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan – is successfully operating in Kazakhstan.
The Republic of Kazakhstan makes a significant contribution to strengthening the stability in Central Asia. The country has achieved great success on the world stage. This is evidenced by Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the OSCE and holding the Summit of this authoritative international organization in Astana in December 2010. Additionally, Kazakhstan is the member of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, as well as a member of the Eurasian Economic Union. In 2016, Kazakhstan was for the first time elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2017-2018. The 9 significant initiative of the country was the organization and development of such a significant peacekeeping project as the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia – the Asian counterpart of the OSCE. Positive feedback was received by the creative activity of Kazakhstan as the chairman of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. The country is also one of the recognized leaders in the global antinuclear movement.
Stable increase of all economy sectors, international recognition, political stability have become the basis for the prosperity of Kazakh society. Kazakhstan is a country looking to the future that preserves its cultural traditions and successfully realizes its creative potential in the modern dynamic world.
Nur-Sultan is located in the Northern part of Kazakhstan close to Ishim river. It is the second most populated city in the country.
On December 10, 1997, the capital was officially transferred from Almaty to Akmola. By the Presidential Decree of 6 May 1998, Akmola was renamed into Astana. The International presentation of new capital was held on June 10, 1998. By Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana was renamed to Nur-Sultan on March 23, 2019.
In 1999, the capital of Kazakhstan was awarded the title of the «City of Peace» by UNESCO. Since 2000, the capital city of Kazakhstan has been a member of the International Assembly of Capitals and Major Cities.
At present, the territory of Nur Sultan exceeds 797 sq.km., the population is more than 1 mln.people. The city consists of four districts – «Almaty», «Saryarka», «Esil» and «Baikonur».
NUR – SULTAN – THE CAPITAL OF KAZAKHSTAN
Nur-Sultan is located in the centre of Kazakhstan in the dry steppe zone and in the grass steppe subzone. The Esil river is a major waterway of the capital.
Favourable location in the center of Eurasian continent makes the city of NurSultan an economically advantageous transport, communication and logistics center, a kind of transit bridge between Europe and Asia.
The transfer of the capital to NurSultan gave a powerful impetus to its economic development. The city’s high economic growth rates attract numerous investors. The city’s economy is based on trade, industrial production, transport, communication and construction. Industrial production is mainly focused 11 on producing construction materials, food and mechanical engineering. NurSultan holds the leading position in Kazakhstan in the field of production of metal goods, ready-mix concrete and concrete construction products
Nur-Sultan is the country in terms of the volume of construction. After NurSultan has acquired the capital status, 22 mln.square metres of housing have been built. Hundreds of local and foreign companies took part in the construction of Nur-Sultan.
When developing the architectural concept of Nur-Sultan, the idea of Nursultan Nazarbayev was taken as the basis for the formation in the capital of special Eurasian style that harmoniously combines the cultural traditions of the West and East. A well-known Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa became the author of the general layout of the capital city.
The major symbol and a brand of Nur-Sultan is the Baiterek monument. Among other unique buildings of the capital are the Palace of Peace and Accord designed by a renowned British architect Norman Foster, the Khan Shatyr shopping mall built in the shape of a tent and Duman, the farthest oceanarium from the sea in the world, Astana Opera theatre, the largest Central Asian mosque Hazret Sultan, Cathedral of the Assumption, Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Archdiocese of the Blessed Virgin Mary, synagogue Bate Rachel – Habad Lubavitch, as well as the Kazakhstan Central Concert Hall, the Kazakh Yeli monument.
The new sports facilities of Nur-Sultan include the 30,000-seat closed stadium Nur-Sultan-Arena and a unique 10,000- seat SaryArka National Cycling Centre acknowledged as the best cycling facility in the world in 2011. Another major sports facility is Alau ice palace, which corresponds to the highest international standards.
The capital of Kazakhstan became the center of attention for students from across the country. In Nur-Sultan, the country’s leading universities are located, involving Nazarbayev University, Gumilev Eurasian National University, Kazakh National University of Arts, Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, as well as Kazakh branch of the Lomonosov Moscow State University and Nur-Sultan Medical University.
A unique Green Belt project envisaging the forests are planted around Nur-Sultan turned the city into a green oasis in the steppe.
Today Nur-Sultan, located in the heart of Eurasia, is a venue for numerous international forums, congresses and large scale international events. The Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, the Astana Economic Forum and other forums are held regularly in the city. The historical Summit of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation took place in NurSultan, the anniversary summits of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation were held. In early 2011, the capital city welcomed the participants and guests of VII Asian Winter Games. In 2017, Nur-Sultan hosted the international specialized exhibition EXPO-2017.
In a short time, due to the political will of First President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Nur-Sultan transformed into the national idea and became a symbol of independence and global success of the young state.